Pasteurization is the process of heating milk or milk product to a predetermined temp for a specified period without a re-contaminated during the entire process.

When dealing with a perishable product like milk, it becomes vital to collect it in a way that preserves the life of the milk without losing out on the nutritional value of the product. It also becomes imperative to ensure that the equipment used to cool the milk are made in a way that won’t contaminate it as well as preserve nutritional value. Milk from cows comes with a lot of bacteria in it and though some of it is good bacteria, sale a lot of it can be very harmful to the human body and might contain environmental pathogens that are transferred from cow feed to the milk. In order to ensure that any harmful bacterium is eliminated from milk, it is put through a process called pasteurization.

High temperature short time pasteurization(flash pasteurization)

heats milk to 71.5degrees for 15 seconds to kill the most heat resistant pathogens in raw milk.

Low temperature long time pasteurization

The temperature used for pasteurization are reduced to 63degrees and held for 30minutes.This prolonged holding period alters the structure of the milk proteins making it better for yogurt.

Ultra-High temperature pasteurization

This is completely closed pasteurization method.

Involves heating from 135 to 150degrees for one to two seconds and chilling it immediately for packing in air tight container for storage

stages of milk pasteurization

  • milk chilling to avoid bacteria that speed up spoilage.
  • pre-heating to separate butterfat during standardization.
  • clarification for removing all foreign matter from the product.
  • standardization stage to provide consumers with products of their preference eg.those who like milk with low fat while others prefer all skim content.
  • Homogenization stage to break down the milk fat globules into droplets to discourage cream separation.
  • Heating stage to kill botulinum spores. Temperature is raised from 60 to 73degrees effective to kill the spores.
  • Holding section.milk flows into holding tubes whose lengths are calibrated with the milk flow rate to ensure milk takes at least 16 seconds in the tubes.
  • cooling section to lower temperature of milk for packaging.

The importance of milk pasteurization is to destroy all harmful micro-organism in milk. This helps to eliminate bacteria like Listeria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli.

It also prevents diseases like scarlet fever, tuberculosis, brucellosis and diaphtheria.

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